Timeline of the Persecution of the Jews

Germany
 
1933
Jewish civil servants are dismissed
Jewish artists and journalists are forbidden to practice their profession

1935
15 September
In Nuremburg, Hitler announces changes in the racial laws. Jews are forbidden to marry non-Jews
 
1938
Jewish doctors and lawyers are only allowed to treat or assist other Jews.

9 November
Reichskristallnacht. Hitler and Goebbels decide to follow an organised programme of persecution. Dozens of synagogues are set on fire, thousands of shops have their windows smashed to smithereens and their contents plundered. Jews are beaten, robbed and killed. More than 30.000 Jews are sent to concentration camps.

November/December

Jewish enterprises and businesses are ‘Aryanised’.
German Jews’ civil liberties are severely curtailed.
 
1939/1940
The terrorizing of Jews in Poland begins, including forced mass evacuation from homes to ghettos.


The Netherlands
 
1940
1st July
Jewish employees of the Air-raid Defence Service are dismissed
 
5th August

Rules about the killing of animals are changed to prevent Jews from performing their slaughtering rituals
 
6th September
The Secretary General announces that Jews can no longer hold positions in government 
 
5th October

Government workers must sign a declaration to say they are of Aryan descent
 
22nd October

Jewish business owners must register their business interests with the Wirtschaftsprüfstelle, (department for business control)

21st November
An announcement is made that Jews will no longer have jobs as civil servants


1941
9th January
Jews are forbidden from going to cinemas
 
10th January
All Jews must register with their local census office
 
5th February
Physicians must specify whether they are of Jewish blood
 
11th February
Jews cannot go to college
 
13th February
Formation of the Jewish Council for Amsterdam
 
22nd and 23rd February
Raids in Amsterdam
 
27th February
Jews may no longer be blood donors
 
12th March
Jewish companies are seized
 
15th March
Jews must surrender their radios
 
31st March
Establishment of the Central Office for Jewish Emigration

1st April
Jews are forbidden to go to cafes
 
11th April
First issue of Het Joodsche Weekblad (a weekly Jewish newspaper)

1st May
Jews are further limited in which professions they can work 
 
4th June
Jews are restricted in their movements
 
11th June

Jews in Amsterdam are rounded up

 8th August
Jews must transfer all their money and investments to Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co.
 
1st September
Jewish children must attend separate schools
 
11th September
Rounding up of Jews in Enschede: transferred to Mauthausen
 
15th September
Jews are prohibited from swimming pools, parks, libraries, zoos, theatres, museums, markets and other public places
 
7th and 8th October
Rounding up of Jews in the Achterhoek, Arnhem, Apeldoorn and Zwolle
 
22nd October
Jews must not be members of associations
 
7th November
Jews cannot travel without permission
 
5th December
All foreign Jews in the Netherlands must register for 'emigration'


1942

1st January
Jewish men are called to register with the Department for Employment in the north and east of the Netherlands
Jews may no longer have non-Jewish domestic personnel
 
9th January
Public education for Jews prohibited
 
10th January
First Jews depart from Amsterdam to Jewish labour camps

17th January
Jews (Zaanse) must relocate to Amsterdam, the start of the concentration of Jews in Amsterdam
 
23rd January
Jews are banned from driving cars
All Jews must wear a badge bearing the letter ‘J’
 
25th March
Jews may not marry non-Jews. Sexual relations with non-Jews will be severely punished
 
26th March
Jews must not remove appliances from their homes
 
24th April
A large number of Jewish butchers close
 
29th April
Introduction of the Star of David in the Netherlands
 
12th May
Jews may no longer transfer money
 
21st May
Jews must surrender their valuables (jewellery, silver, etc.) to Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co.
 
29th May
Jews may no longer go fishing


5th June
Complete travel ban on Jews
 
12th June
Jews must not buy vegetables from non-Jewish shops
Jews must surrender bicycles and other vehicles
All sports are prohibited for Jews
 
26th June
Jews up to the age of 40 are sent to labour camps in Germany
 
30th June
Jews are forbidden from the streets after 8 pm
 
6th July

Jews are forbidden to make telephone calls
Jews may no longer visit non-Jews
Jews are only allowed to shop in non-Jewish shops between 15.00 and 17.00
 
14th July
Raids in Amsterdam
 
15th July
First transport from Westerbork
Abandoned houses are emptied by the Germans
 
17th July
Jews may only go shopping between 15.00 and 17.00
 
31st July
Jews may no longer visit hairdressing salons
 
August
Raids during the whole month

8th September
In The Hague, Jews may no longer sit on public benches
 
15th September
Jewish students banned from studying
 
2nd and 3rd October
Raids on Jewish labour camps
Families are arrested in their homes and taken to Westerbork
 
Autumn 1942
Call-up papers are no longer issued. Jews are removed from their homes without prior notice
An assembly takes place at the Hollandsche Schouwburg (Dutch Theatre)


1943
26th January
Patients at the Apeldoornsche Bosch psychiatric hospital are transported to Auschwitz
 
26th May
Raids in the centre of Amsterdam. Thousands sent to Westerbork
 
20th June
Raids in south and east Amsterdam. Thousands sent to Westerbork
 
29th September
Last major raid in Amsterdam. Jewish Council sent to Westerbork
 
Spring / Autumn
Measures against Jews in mixed marriages are planned.
Forced sterilisation of Jews begins
 
1944
2nd February
Group of Portuguese Jews sent to Westerbork
 
March
Raids on mixed marriage households in Amsterdam
 
13th September
Last transport from Westerbork